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Political Science [clear filter]
Tuesday, April 24
 

10:15am PDT

Does Identity Matter? The Effect Of Female Representation In The National Legislature On Violence Against Women
Why is violence against women treated more seriously by some countries than others? I answer this question by examining the relationship between the representation of women in the legislature and the criminalization, enforcement, and perceived societal safety concerning violence against women. Using data that I have collected based on the U.S. State Department’s 2016 human rights reports, I find that when controlling for factors such as regime type or economic development, having more women in the legislature increases the rates of criminalization of violence against women, but has no effect on the enforcement of laws or the general safety of women from violence. I discuss my findings and their implication for the incorporation of women in politics.

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Tuesday April 24, 2018 10:15am - 10:35am PDT
237 Zageir Hall

10:35am PDT

Violence Against Humanitarian Aid Workers By Organized Non-State Armed Groups
Each year, dozens of aid workers are injured and killed every year by terrorist organizations, armed groups, and those looking to destabilize regions in order to implement their own government and impose their own ideologies. To predict the likelihood of violence against aid workers by non-state armed groups, and to estimate the effects that different types of groups have, this paper uses data from the 2014 Societal Violence Scale, HDI, GDP, and several other factors. This paper argues that the presence of different types of non-state armed groups directly affects the likelihood of violence against aid workers in a country. Specifically, this paper hypothesizes that global/transnational non-state armed groups will be most likely to perpetrate violence against aid workers due to their motives of changing the global ideology. The results claim that violence against aid workers is most likely to occur in countries with national-level and local-level non-state armed groups present. With this information, international aid organizations may be able to quantitatively calculate the risk of entering a destabilized country and weigh the security factors of providing aid to those in need.

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Tuesday April 24, 2018 10:35am - 10:55am PDT
237 Zageir Hall

10:55am PDT

Blood, Soil, Terrorism: An Analysis Of Domestic Terrorism Through The Lens Of Citizenship Laws

This paper looks to discover why some countries experience more domestic terrorist attacks than others. It explores whether nationality law type is a determinant. Ethnic and religious fractionalization, regime type, GDP per capita and population have been previously identified as determinants and are used as controls. This paper hypothesizes that countries that practice jus soli nationality laws will experience fewer terrorist attacks. The evidence that nationality laws affect the frequency of domestic terrorism is inconclusive. In some of the regression models, the relationship of jus soli laws was negative, which met the expectation of the hypothesis. At other times, it was positive. Additionally, India was observed longitudinally due to their change in citizenship laws in 1987. These data supported the hypothesis overwhelmingly; during jus soli years, 226 fewer attacks were observed. While this is supportive of the hypothesis, more research is needed to substantiate the claim that citizenship laws drive the incidence of terrorist attacks.


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Tuesday April 24, 2018 10:55am - 11:15am PDT
237 Zageir Hall

11:15am PDT

Why Do Candidates Reject "Free" Money?: Examining Candidate Calculus In Presidential Primaries
In 1974, Congress amended the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) to create a public funding option in presidential primaries, in an attempt to level the playing field between establishment and underdog candidates. However, beginning in the 1990s, people saw candidates rejecting these public funds, which essentially amount to “free” money. Why do some candidates reject public financing? This paper argues that institutional factors, such as restrictions on when and where candidates can spend these funds, coupled with features of the electoral system, such as front-loading, can explain this trend. Further, the paper argues that underdog candidates should be more likely to reject public funds because of restrictions on spending in early key states. Using data from the Federal Election Commission from 1976 to 2000, the paper finds partial support for the hypotheses. The paper finds strong support for the contention that front-loading has an effect on the decision to reject these funds. However, the paper do not find support for the hypothesis that underdog candidates are more likely to reject. The results of this study raise important questions about the unintended consequences of institutions and the effect of campaign finance law in the United States.

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Tuesday April 24, 2018 11:15am - 11:35am PDT
237 Zageir Hall

11:35am PDT

Juveniles In Jail: ALEC Membership And Juvenile Incarceration Throughout The States
The state of Hawaii has every sociological factor that contributes to high juvenile incarceration rates: high poverty, large economic gaps, high levels of substance abuse, and poor education. What is puzzling about this is that Hawaii has some of the lowest juvenile incarceration rates in the United States. What explains juvenile incarceration rates across the states? This paper explores the political factors that contribute to juvenile incarceration; in particular, the focus is on state participation in the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). This organization is a council between legislators and corporations, many of which are in the private prison industry. ALEC incentivizes legislators to increase incarceration rates through funding, networking, and electoral support. States, such as Pennsylvania, have had over forty representatives in ALEC, and also have incredibly high rates of incarceration, especially among juveniles. In contrast, Hawaii’s legislators have little to do with the organization, and low levels of juvenile incarceration. The tie between this council and crime could be the answer to Hawaii’s crime rate, and should provide insights on mass juvenile incarceration in the United States. The results have shown that ALEC membership has a significant effect on juvenile incarceration rates. It is important to understand their heavy hand in creating legislation and how it affects state level incarceration rates, and those in the United States as a whole.

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Tuesday April 24, 2018 11:35am - 11:55am PDT
237 Zageir Hall